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© Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand

Agro-ecology Solutions for Ecosystem Restoration in Northern Thailand

The report was originally developed by the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. View the report on the PBL website. 

Through the deployment of agro-ecology approaches, project FLR349 is a nature-based solution that is being implemented in Northern Thailand to help restore local forest ecosystems as well as the local food system and build resilient communities. The focus is to incentivize farmers to switch from agrochemical monoculture towards the cultivation of perennial trees, fruit, vegetables and herbs in a mixed agriculture approach.

Map - Project Location 


© WWF Thailand

Fast facts 

Start year: 2018 

Ecosystem type: Deciduous watershed forest 

Restoration measures used: agroforestry, forest plantation, cross-slope barriers, assisted natural regeneration 

Hectares of restoration achieved so far: 107 ha 


Mr. Ply Pirom is a sustainable development specialist and is currently a Project Manager for WWF Thailand’s programme on Sustainable Consumption and Production. He has experience in the fields of engineering, urban environmental management, circular economy, value chain development, renewable energy technologies, forest restoration and agroecology and environmental policy advocacy. Throughout his various roles, he has worked closely with the national government, business sectors, and civil society in Thailand.

Ply Pirom, Sustainable Consumption and Production project manager at WWF Thailand. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand 

The plight of high biodiversity landscapes in northern Thailand: Consequences of an unsustainable food system

Northern Thailand contains some of the most intact natural and biodiverse landscapes in the entire Greater Mekong region. However, over the past decades, and owing to an increasingly international market demand for industrial food and fuel, there has been an increase in agricultural intensification by smallholder farmers. This has mainly been for monoculture cash crops, such as maize, which is used for animal feed, primarily in the production of meat, and which Thailand exports to the world market.

This type of farming has lead to an increase in the use of agrochemicals, deforestation, soil degradation, and greenhouse gas emissions, which have impacted upon local food systems and farmer health as well as compromised the region’s biodiversity and ecosystem services. Furthermore, legal and economic measures for promoting sustainable agriculture do not exist. According to WWF Thailand (2019), approximately 800,000 hectares of Thailand’s forest has now been encroached upon for cash crop plantation, the majority of which are clustered in watershed forests in northern Thailand.1

‘Bald mountains’ in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The areas, which were formerly forests, were cleared and burned in order to create arable lands for monoculture crops such as maize or soybean © Baramee Temboonkiat for WWF Thailand

‘Bald mountains’ in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The areas, which were formerly forests, were cleared and burned in order to create arable lands for monoculture crops such as maize or soybean © Baramee Temboonkiat for WWF Thailand

Spraying of pesticides in a monoculture maize plantation © Baramee Temboonkiat for WWF Thailand

Spraying of pesticides in a monoculture maize plantation © Baramee Temboonkiat for WWF Thailand

In preparing the land for cultivation, smallholder maize farmers adopt the method of open burning of agricultural residues. This further impacts the surrounding forests through encroachment and also leads to the problem of heavy haze pollution which contains soot particles, carbon dioxide, and other toxic gases that contribute to climate change and impacts upon human health. At the same time, the degradation of their land from years of agrochemicals usage means that farmers face challenges to grow other crops for their own subsistence. This means that they lose their agency and self-sufficiency as their livelihood solely relies on a monoculture crop, which has a fluctuating selling price2. Most monoculture farmers therefore become stuck in a cycle of debt. In order to improve these local farmer livelihoods, regional food security, and overall ecosystem integrity, it is critical to restore the health of this degraded landscape, reduce agrochemical monoculture practices, and work towards creating a sustainable food system. 

Skyline covered in smog caused by slash and burn agriculture, Nan Province, Thailand. © Baramee Temboonkiat for WWF Thailand

Flames from the burning of land to open soil surfaces for maize plantations. © Baramee Temboonkiat for WWF Thailand

Introducing Project FLR349: A nature-based solution 

In 2018, Project “FLR349” (also known as Forest for Earth) was established in the country’s northern provinces of Chiangmai and Nan by WWF Thailand, as a nature-based solution model that addresses the challenges created by unsustainable agricultural practices. The project’s main objective is to transform current forest-encroaching mono-agriculture operations into the “Three Forests, Four Benefits3” agricultural system; a system which appreciates the value of forests and the benefits that they provide including food, fuel, shelter, and shade. 

Through the application of this approach, the intention is that this will boost local food security and livelihoods, reduce the health risks associated with chemically intensive monocultures, and preserve farmland biodiversity. This will be achieved through farmers learning innovative and sustainable techniques, such as growing perennial crops, fruit trees, vegetables, and herbs in a mixed cropping systems, that enable restoration of degraded land as well as soil replenishment and vitality, whilst helping farmers to generate a higher income from organic produce sales. According to Mr. Ply Pirom from WWF Thailand, and the project manager of WWF’s Sustainable Consumption and Production programme:

“The plan is to incentivize farmers to switch from agrochemical monoculture farming to mixed crop farming. This will ensure that farmers not only have enough income, food, fuel, and shelter but it will also reduce forest clearing that was required to make way for cash crops”.

Students at the School of Forest Industry Organization No. 13 preparing saplings to be planted at an FLR349 reforestation event, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand

The School of Forest Industry Organization No. 13’s director planting a sapling with a student, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand

Mr. Monthian Ruthieng, a farmer part of the FLR349 project checking on the growth process of a sapling. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand

Currently, on average, smallholder farmers are practicing monoculture agriculture on two to six hectares. FLR349 will fund a maximum of 1.6 hectares per household at approximately 64 dollars (2,000 baht) for every 0.16 hectares. The area will be funded for six years to aid with transformation efforts, and so the smallholder farmers remain self-reliant after the project ceases. To join the project, the smallholder farmers must commit to halting monoculture agriculture and eliminate the use of agrochemicals, on their whole land, not just 6 the areas funded by FLR349 to be converted. The remaining areas will be left to natural rehabilitation processes; therefore the project has the potential to halt monoculture in approximately five times the amount of area reforested. 

Mr Sawet Pingkool, a small farmer part of the FLR349 project preparing his land. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand

Mr. Sawet Pingkool and wife, farmers part of the FLR439, proudly showing off their organically grown vegetable, which will be sold through the supply chain created by the project. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand

Small farmer family part of the FLR349 project with their organically grown pumpkins. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand 

Thanks to the application of this ‘agro-ecology’ approach (see below for more) and the development of a sustainable value chain, farmers can break free from the endless cycle of debt that they find themselves when farming cash crops. This system also supports the achievement of many of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). 

Inspiration behind the project 

A key inspiration and driving philosophy behind the project has been King Bhumibol Adulyadej’s, Rama IX of Thailand’s, “Sufficiency Economy Philosophy4”; a philosophy based on the principles of Thai culture and one which promotes a balanced and sustainable way of living. For the FLR349 project, this philosophy has played a central role in the development of sustainable value chains for farmers living in these watershed areas. The FLR349 project falls under WWF’s Sustainable Consumption and Production programme, which is funded by the International Climate Initiative (IKI) from the German government. According to Mr. Pirom: 

“We received this funding as a seed fund to promote sustainable consumption and production and to mainstream it. The heavy deforestation that has been happening in northern Thailand from maize production inspired us to get involved and establish the project, using the King's philosophy as a guide”. 

To be able to replicate and scale up nationwide by 2030, the project aims to fundraise 47 million USD to develop productive forests covering an area of 8,000 hectares and turn a degraded watershed forest area into a sustainable ecosystem.

A collective effort towards agro-ecology solutions and restoration impact 


One of the most innovative aspects of the project is the application of agro-ecology solutions. According to the FAO (2020)5“Agro-ecology is the science of applying ecological concepts and principles to manage interactions between plants, animals, humans and the environment for food security and nutrition”. For the FLR349 project, this approach ensures that there is mixed cropping which not only sustains the ecosystem and land but also generates an income to farmers e.g. through the sale of fruits and vegetables. As Mr. Pirom noted: 

“Agro-ecology enables crop diversity, healthy soils, restored forest which leads to healthier lives. It is key to work with nature”. 

Another fundamental and innovative aspect of this project has been the development of multi-level, multi-actor strategic partnerships with leading organisations from various sectors. This includes a strong partnership with the Central Group – one of Southeast Asia’s leading conglomerates with subsidiaries in retail and hospitality- as well as the Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC), Thailand’s leading agricultural bank. 

From left to right: Ply Pirom, Sustainable Consumption and Production Manager at WWF-Thailand, Pichai Chirathivat, Executive Director of the Central Group, Rattapat Srichanklad, FLR349 Fund Secretary, and Anun Tangmee, Deputy Director BAAC Chiang Mai signing an MoU committing to the project. © WWF Thailand

With the Central Group’s reach, for example, FLR349 has been able to create a market place for organically grown products from the project sites, helping to generate demand and income. Currently, products from the project sites can be found in many of Central Group’s retail stores, including TOPS supermarkets. BAAC’s role in the partnership is to provide suspension on debt repayment and provision of green credit for the smallholder farmers who joined the program. In 2020, the project has attracted other large companies to financially contribute to the reforestation and local socio-economic development goals, they include Agoda, one of the largest online travel agencies in Asia, and HSBC, one of the leading private banks in the region. As Mr. Pirom noted: 

“Our restoration efforts also benefit businesses – if this ecosystem is destroyed or nature is depleted, then they are also impacted”.


FLR349 reforestation event with Agoda Services Co., Ltd. at the School of Forest Industry Organization No. 13, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand

The intention moving forward is to create a bankable investable model for the project where there is not just an environmental and social return but also a financial return for investors. So far, however, WWF has fundraised for the FLR349 project from both donations and directly from the business sector who want to financially contribute to sustainable development. Also, and through the development of a sustainable value chain, products from the landscape will not only be sold to local food and retail markets, but part of the organic produce will be kept for the farmers' own personal consumption, reducing their living expenses. Together these measures will encourage farmers to permanently shift away from intensive agrochemical monoculture practices.

Overcoming Obstacles 

The project faces various challenges. One of the biggest challenges is the impact of climate change in the region and the shift in seasons, which includes periods of heavy rains as well as longer periods of drought. Owing to the current lack of trees and perennial crops in the landscape, the onset of heavy rains and floods leads to heavy erosion. Periods of drought lead to a limited availability of water resources in the landscape. These in turn affect the growing season and the survival of the crops which creates a vicious cycle. To deal with this issue, Mr. Pirom stated that: 


“Using the King's philosophy, we also work with hydrology and make small reservoirs where possible in the landscape to capture and store water”. 

Since 2020, there has also been the impact of Covid-19 and how this has caused the closure of marketplaces making it difficult for farmers to sell their produce. To address this issue, WWF-Thailand, along with partners like The Central Group, established the “Food Sharing for Love”6 project to create collective actions for collective impacts. As Mr. Pirom noted: 


“During this Covid time, we have matched two problems together. The first problem is that some people in urban areas (e.g. those who are marginalized, vulnerable and/or sick) don't have an income and so can't buy food. The other problem is that farmers currently have nowhere to sell their products. What we have done to bridge this gap is to raise funds through donations to buy the products and donate them to the local urban community. This also helps to revitalize the local economy.” 

Thanks to this intervention farmers now have more confidence to maintain their mixed cropping systems and sell their products. Also, FLR349 partners from the food retail sector in Thailand now see the importance of having consumers and producers closely connected.

Food delivered to the marginal communities. © WWF Thailand

Food delivered to the marginal communities. © WWF Thailand

Impacts so far 

Between 2017- 2019, the project has provided support and worked together with smallholder farmers, cooperatives, and local administrative organisation at project sites. To date, 1850 smallholder farmers have benefited from the project, and more than 38 smallholder workshops were conducted to validate and share farming practices that better protect the environment. To date, a total of 600 hectares of maize plantation have been converted from monoculture to agro-ecology with over 107 hectares of forest restored so far. A total of 83,558 seedlings of mixed varieties were planted on 72.8 hectares. 

Aerial shot of an FLR349 project site. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand

Aerial shot of an FLR349 project site. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand

Aerial shot of an FLR349 project site. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand

In terms of specific impacts, both environmental and socio-economic impacts have been experienced thanks to the intervention of this project. Environmentally speaking, Mr. Pirom confirmed that owing to the shift from agrochemical intensive farming to mixed cropping, improvements have been seen in soil quality including soil biodiversity and water retention capacity. Improvements have also been seen in the local biodiversity specifically and increase in insects, pollinators, and birds. Once the restored landscapes are connected to the surrounding national parks again, there will likely be an increase in mammals in the area as well. 

Socio-economically, the FLR349 project has facilitated an improvement in farmer income as well as local food security. As a result, local communities are now more self-reliant. The growing of mixed perennial crops without the aid of agrochemicals will enable conditions 11 where smallholders can become self-reliant all year round, especially in terms of health and income generation. The value chain created with partners will help empower communities, reducing inequality, rejuvenating local economies, while also restoring the local food system so the population will no longer need to source food from elsewhere. The young generation who left the rural areas will have incentives to return home as more sustainable local jobs are created. The project outcomes will also have direct positive impacts on the urban population through its ecosystem services, such as the provision of water supply and purification, and food security. 

Mr. Boonma Laemkhom, a village headman, Ban Mae Khi Muk village, Mae Chaem District, Chiangmai Province, showing off bananas he grew. His plot has been under the FLR349 program for almost 2 years. © Jittrapon Kaicome for WWF Thailand

FLR349 also benefits the wider society. Through the growing of mixed perennial crops, the pilot sites will help safeguard key ecosystem services such as food provisioning services and soil regeneration. Moreover, the haze pollution will also be mitigated due to the reduction of slash and burn agriculture. Having a more sustainable food system will also have widespread impacts, ensuring access to safe food for a larger group of people, especially organic food which will become more accessible. 

Moving out of the Maize:

The sign of future success in northern Thailand Thanks to the implementation of the FLR349 project, the conversion of degraded land into profitable, sustainable, and edible forests are now being facilitated. But more needs to be done to scale up. As Mr. Pirom confirmed: 


“For ultimate project success, we not only need to continue seeing these positive indicators but we also need to scale these activities and impacts up to 8000 hectares in the next 10 years. The crowdfunding platform will enable people from all around the world to donate.” 

The platform is currently under development and in parallel, Mr. Pirom and his team are also working on a traceability platform that will link up stakeholders along the supply chain, enable them to access information and remote sensing data regarding the food supply chain, make donations to support the operation and track progress of the reforestation efforts. This model would help to rejuvenate the grassroots economy, boost cash flow in the community, and encourage sustainable production and consumption. It can even be further developed into eco-tourism. For Mr. Pirom: 


“My dream is to have everyone contribute to this as well as consumers, who can also play a key role to support such an important initiative. I would love to see this kind of concept being replicated more and more across other similar types of projects”



1 See: http://www.wwf.or.th/en/scp/reforestation_activity/flr_349/
2 Farmers earn approximately 307USD/Ha/year from maize production
3 In this mixed forestry approach, forests are split into three parts to grow timber, fruits and firewood. The four benefits received from this include shelter, food, fuel and shade.
4 See: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/partnership/?p=2126
5 See: http://www.fao.org/agroecology/knowledge/practices/en/
6 See: https://www.wwf.or.th/en/scp/?uNewsID=362635


The Chaipattana Foundation (2017). Forest Rehabilitation and Development Theory. Available at: https://www.chaipat.or.th/eng/concepts-theories/forest-rehabilitationdevelopment-theory.html Last accessed November 2020.
 WWF (2019). Forest Landscape Restoration Fund (FLR349). Available at: http://www.wwf.or.th/en/scp/reforestation_activity/flr_349/ Last accessed November 2020.
WWF et al (2019). FLR349 fund brochure. Available at: https://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/flr___brochure___eng_for_press.pdf Last accessed November 2020.
WWF Thailand (2019). What is the FLR349? (Introduction video). Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YAIeAjwHKbk&feature=emb_logo Last accessed November 2020.
WWF Thailand (2020). FLR349 supports marginalised communities during COVID-19 pandemic fallout. Available at: https://www.wwf.or.th/en/scp/reforestation_activity/flr_349/?uNewsID=362635 Last accessed November 2020.